Bachelor of Science in Geospatial Engineering

Overview

Philosophy

The Department of geospatial & Space Technology offers a Bachelor of Science in Geospatial Engineering [(BSc. Geospatial Engineering)] degree. This degree program is a result of an intensive curriculum review from Bachelor Bachelor of Science in Surveying to the current program. This change was necessitated by modern developments in the broad field of geospatial technology. In particular, the modern developments in the areas of space technology, information technology, and communication technology have tremendously influenced how positioning, navigation and geospatial modeling are carried out today.

Rationale

To this extent, it is today widely recognized that the disciplines of measurement and mapping that were previously collected under the Surveying (or Land Surveying) can no longer be adequately described by the term “Surveying”. These factors as well as the need to be current and relevant in what the Department offers to it’s students meant that the Department must completely redefine both the Undergraduate and Postgraduate curricula.

Program  Objectives:

The broad objectives of this study can be stated as follows:

  1. To impart to the students the necessary knowledge, skills and professional attitude demanded by the industry in the broad area of geospatial Engineering today and in the foreseeable future.
  2. To lay the intellectual foundation necessary for our graduates to play their full roles in the evolution of Geospatial engineering
  3. To introduce the students to other disciplines closely related to Geospatial Engineering in order for them to appreciate the interrelationships between Geospatial Engineering and the respective disciplines and to provide them with the opportunity to consider careers in the related disciplines should they desire.
  4. To introduce the students to certain advanced topics in selected areas of Geospatial Engineering in order to motivate them towards further studies or specialized practice in those areas.

F1   a)  Every Curriculum for the degree shall extend over not less than five academic years.

  1. A candidate enrolled for the degree shall satisfactorily complete such curriculum in a period of not more than twice the minimum period for which he/she was registered for the degree.

F2        Each curriculum shall consist of an approved scheme of study.

F3        The choice of options within an approved scheme of study shall, in all cases, be subject to the approval of the Department.

F4        (a) A candidate for the degree shall satisfactorily complete such course work/practical assignments as may be required for each scheme of study.  Satisfactory completion of any such requirements shall be a condition for admission to the examination at the end of that semester of study.

(b) A candidate who fails to satisfy the condition set in F5 (a) above with good cause shall be required to repeat the course unit, otherwise the candidate shall be discontinued.

F5        Attendance of not less than two-thirds of the total lecture hours of all prescribed courses shall be a condition for admission to  the examination at the end of that semester of study.

A candidate who does not satisfy this condition with good cause in any semester, shall on the recommendation of the School Board of Examiners and approval by Senate, be allowed to repeat all the affected units in that semester.

A candidate who does not satisfy this condition without good cause in any semester, shall on the recommendation of the School Board of Examiners and approval by Senate, be discontinued from the course of study.

F6        Each academic year shall be divided into two semesters while there may also be a third practical semester or industrial attachment   semester as may be provided for in the specific degree programme.

 

 

Year

Semester   Course

Hours    CW

 

Exam

Units

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

%

 

%

 

(Weight)

Year I

Semester 1  FGE 101: Introduction to Engineering

60

 

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 171: Pure Mathematics A

48

 

30

70

1

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 173: Applied Mathematics A

48

 

30

70

1

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 175: Physics A

48

 

30

70

1

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 177: Informatics A

48

 

30

70

1

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 181: Philosophy

45

 

20

80

1

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 183: Communication Skills

45

 

20

80

1

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

342

 

 

 

 

 

7.25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Semester 2  FGE 102: Introduction to Geospatial Engineering

60

 

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 162: Earth Science

48

 

30

70

1

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 172: Pure Mathematics B

48

 

30

70

1

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 174: Applied Mathematics B

48

 

30

70

1

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 176: Physics B

48

 

30

70

1

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 178: Informatics B

48

 

30

70

1

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 182: Elements of Economics

45

 

20

80

1

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

345

 

 

 

 

 

7.25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

687

 

 

 

 

 

14.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

687

 

 

 

 

 

14.5

 

Year II

Semester 1  FGE 231: Geospatial Measurement Techniques

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 241: Cartographics

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 261: Electrical Technology

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 271: Engineering Mathematics IA

48

30

70

1

 

 

 

FGE 273: Geophysics

48

30

70

1

 

 

 

FGE 275: Geometry

48

30

70

1

 

 

 

FGE 277: Computer Programming

48

60

40

1

 

 

 

Total

 

360

 

 

 

7.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Semester 2  FGE 232: Topometry

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 242: Cartography

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 262: Digital Electronics and Microprocessors

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 264: Communications and Signal Processing

48

30

70

1

 

 

 

FGE 272: Engineering Mathematics IB

48

30

70

1

 

 

 

FGE 276: Geospatial Statistics

48

30

70

1

 

 

 

FGE 278: Computer Graphics

48

60

40

1

 

 

 

Total

 

360

 

 

 

7.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

720

 

 

 

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Semester 3  FGE 299: Practical Project (8 weeks)

288

 

100

0

3

 

 

 

Total

288

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

1008

 

 

 

18

Year III

Semester 1  FGE 311: Introduction to Geodesy

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 341: Photogrammetry IA

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 345: Remote Sensing Systems

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 347: Geoinformation Systems A

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 349: Geospatial Surface Modelling

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 371: Engineering Mathematics IIA

48

30

70

1

 

 

 

FGE 373: Numerical Methods

48

30

70

1

 

 

 

Total

 

384

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Semester 2  FGE 302: Adjustment Theory

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 322: Geospatial Positioning Techniques

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 342: Photogrammetry IB

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 344: Digital Cartography

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 346: Digital Image Processing

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 348: Geoinformation Systems B

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 372: Engineering Mathematics IIB

48

30

70

1

 

 

 

Total

 

384

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

768

 

 

 

16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Semester 3  FGE 399: Practical Project (8 weeks)

288

 

100

0

3

 

 

 

Total

288

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

1056

 

 

 

19

Year IV

Semester 1  FGE 421: Geospatial Reference Systems

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 431: Engineering Surveying A

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 441: Photogrammetry IIA

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 447: Remote Sensing Applications

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 433: Hydrographic Mapping

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 461: Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 463: Water and Environmental Engineering

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

Total

 

384

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Semester 2  FGE 432: Engineering Surveying B

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 442: Photogrammetry IIB

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 444: Digital Photogrammetry

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 452: Cadastral Surveying

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 462: Highway and Transportation Engineering

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 464: Structural and Deformation Engineering

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 466: Spatial Planning and Design

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

Total

 

384

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

768

 

 

 

16

 

Semester 3  FGE 400: Geospatial Engineering Camp (2 weeks)

 

96

 

100

0

 

1

 

 

 

FGE 434: Hydrographic Mapping Project ( 1 week)

48

100

0

0.5

 

 

 

FGE 499: Industrial Attachment (8 weeks)

288

 

100

0

3

 

 

 

Total

432

 

 

 

4.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

1200

 

 

 

20.5

Year V

Semester 1  FGE 541: Land Registration Systems

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 582: Principles of Management

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

 

FGE 591: Project

96

100

0

2

 

 

 

Total

216

 

 

 

4.5

 

 

 

Electives

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Geodesy and Geodynamics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 511: Physical Geodesy

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 512: Geodynamics

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 514: Spherical Astronomy

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 516: Map Projections

48

40

60

1

 

 

 

FGE 517: Time and Timing

48

40

60

1

 

2 Positioning and Navigation

 

 

FGE 521: Satellite Positioning Systems                   48           40           60              1

 

 

 

FGE 523: Navigation Systems

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 524: Vehicle Location and Navigation

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 525: Telemetry and Data Communication

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 526: Marine Positioning and Cadastre

48

40

60

1

 

3 Topometry and Measurement Systems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 531: Medical Imaging and Topometry

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 532: Precision and Industrial Metrology

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 533: Mining and Tunnel Surveying

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 536: Laser Technology

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 537: Structural Deformation Analysis

48

40

60

1

 

4 Geoinformatics and Visualisation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 542: Cartographic Animation

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 543: Close Range Imaging Systems

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 544: Web-Based Mapping

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 545: Spatial Data Mining

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 547: Digital Terrain Modelling

48

40

60

1

 

5 Land and Infrastructure Management

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FGE 551: Land Administration and Management

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 552: Land Information Systems

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 553: Land Tenure Systems

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 554: Facility and Infrastructure Management

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 561: Environmental Planning and Management

48

40

60

1

 

 

Total

144

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

Total

 

360

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Semester 2  FGE 504: Professional Practice

48

40

60

1

 

 

FGE 544: Geospatial Data Infrastructures

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

FGE 546: Cartographic Map Design and Production

60

40

60

1.25

 

 

FGE 556: Land Law

48

30

70

1

 

 

FGE 582: Management of Engineering Systems

48

30

70

1

 

 

FGE 592: Project

96

100

 

0

2

 

 

Total

 

360

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.5

 

 

Total

 

 

720

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

Semester 3  FGE 599 Technical Project (4 weeks)

144

 

100

 

0

3

 

 

Total

 

144

 

100

 

0

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

864

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

                                   
 

 

Total: Sem1+Sem2                                                     3663                                        76.5

 

 

 

 

 

Total: Sem3

1152

 

13.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total (Session-1+Session-2+Session-3)

4815

 

90

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total (Year1+Year2+Year3+Year4+Year5)

4815

 

90

 

 

 

Subject coding system

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0 General Methodologies

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Geodesy + Geodynamics

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 Positioning + Navigation

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 Topometry + Measurement Systems

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 Geoinformatics + Visualisation

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 Land + Infrastructure Management

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 General Engineering + The Environment

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 Mathematical + Natural Sciences

 

 

 

 

 

 

8 Humanities + Social Sciences

 

 

 

 

 

 

9 Projects + Practicum

 

 

 

 

                                 

Mode of Delivery

  • Online
  • Blended Physical face to face

        https://learning.uonbi.ac.ke/                 

A) Self Sponsored (Module II) apply online through url: https://application.uonbi.ac.ke

B) Government Sponsored Module I KUCCPS Selection through url: https://students.kuccps.net/login

Entry Requirements 

Candidates shall be eligible for admission into the Bachelor of Science degree in the School of Engineering in the following categories:

a)         KCSE Candidates

The basic admission requirement shall be the minimum requirement set for entry into Public Universities which is a mean grade of at least C+ in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). In addition, candidates shall have obtained at least C+ in each of the four cluster subjects from any of the following alternative clusters.  However, a cut-off grade higher than C+ in each cluster subject shall be preferred if limitations of the number of places available for each degree programme versus the number of qualified candidates so demand. The said cut-off grades shall be determined and implemented by the School Board.

Alternative A:

Physics                                    Biology or Geography or any Group IV Subject

Chemistry

Mathematics

Alternative B:

Physical Sciences                   Geography or any Group IV Subject

Biological Sciences

Mathematics

Group IV Subjects:

Home Science              Building Construction

Art and Design                        Power Mechanics

Agriculture                              Electricity

Woodwork                                Drawing and Design

Metalwork                               Aviation Technology

b)         A-Level Candidates

Candidates with a minimum entry requirement of principal  C passes in Mathematics and Physics and a Subsidiary level pass in Chemistry with a credit pass in English at ‘O’ level, except that for Geospatial Engineering, a subsidiary level pass in Geography shall also be accepted in lieu of Chemistry.

c)         KNEC Higher National Diploma (HND) or Equivalent

Candidates with Higher National Diploma in the following broad areas of study:

    1. Agricultural Engineering
    2. Civil engineering
    3. Electrical engineering
    4. Mechanical engineering
    5. Geospatial Engineering
    6. Any other approved subject area.
  1. Ordinary  KNEC Diploma or equivalent (with credit pass)
    1. Agricultural Engineering
    2. Civil engineering
    3. Electrical engineering
    4. Mechanical engineering
    5. Geospatial Engineering
    6. Any other approved subject area.
  2. Diploma from Science/Technical Teacher Training Colleges

Candidates with a Diploma in Mathematics and Physics from recognized teacher training colleges.

  1. BSc/BEd (Science) degrees from Universities or any other relevant degrees 

Candidates with a Bachelor of Science or Education degree in Physics and Mathematics from recognized institutions or any other relevant degree from a recognized institution.

Course Duration: 5 academic years

Schedule of Admission:

  • September Intake every calendar year
  •  Rolling admission (self sponsored students only) within calendar year  

 

Research and Consultancy                         

The department has an active research program in the areas of:    

  • Resource Mapping
  • Establishment of Geodetic Control
  • Cadastral Surveying
  • Engineering Surveying
  • Cellular Mobile Mapping
  • Capacity Building
  • Various GIS Applications e.g.
  • Marketing Segmentation
  • Tax Assessment Mapping
  • Business Mapping
  • Fixed Assets Mapping
  • Infrastructure mapping
  • School Mapping
  • Health Risk mapping

Some of the Potential Employment Fields

  • Cadastral Surveying & Digital Cadastre
  • Engineering Surveying
  • Hydrographic Surveying
  • Photogrammetric Mapping
  • Defense Mapping
  • Asset Management and Utilization
  • Enviromental Management
  • Educational Institutions
  • Spatial Data Management
  • Remote Sensing
  • Planning and Urban development
  • Business Mapping
  • Land Mapping
  • Land Planning
  • GIS and GIS Applications
  • Cartography

Course objectives

The broad objectives of this study can be stated as follows:

  1. To impart to the students the necessary knowledge, skills and professional attitude demanded by the industry in the broad area of geospatial Engineering today and in the foreseeable future.
  2. To lay the intellectual foundation necessary for our graduates to play their full roles in the evolution of Geospatial engineering
  3. To introduce the students to other disciplines closely related to Geospatial Engineering in order for them to appreciate the interrelationships between Geospatial Engineering and the respective disciplines and to provide them with the opportunity to consider careers in the related disciplines should they desire.
  4. To introduce the students to certain advanced topics in selected areas of Geospatial Engineering in order to motivate them towards further studies or specialized practice in those areas.

 

 

Attachment Opportunities

  • Governmental 

 

 

  • INGO/NGO 

 

 

Private Service Practitioners 

 

Bsc Geospacial and Space Tech-Year I -14 units      
   Semester 1   Semester 2   Yearly TOTAL 
TUITION           198,000             198,000                 396,000
MEDICAL FEE (PER YEAR)               6,500                      -                       6,500
ICT SERVICES - (PER YEAR)               7,000                      -                       7,000
ACTIVITY-( PER YEAR)               2,000                      -                       2,000
CAUTION - (ONCE)               5,000                      -                       5,000
REGISTRATION (PER SEMESTER@2250)               2,250                 2,250                     4,500
EXAMINATION (PER UNIT @1000)               7,000                 7,000                   14,000
ID CARD ( PER YEAR)               1,000                      -                       1,000
STUDENT ORGANISATION(PER YEAR)               1,000                      -                       1,000
LIBRARY (PER YEAR)               4,000                      -                       4,000
TOTAL           233,750             207,250                 441,000
       
Bsc Geospacial and Space Tech-Year 2 -14units      
   Semester 1   Semester 2   Yearly TOTAL 
TUITION           198,000             198,000                 396,000
MEDICAL FEE (PER YEAR)               6,500                      -                       6,500
ICT SERVICES - (PER YEAR)               7,000                      -                       7,000
ACTIVITY-( PER YEAR)               2,000                      -                       2,000
REGISTRATION (PER SEMESTER@2250)               2,250                 2,250                     4,500
EXAMINATION (PER UNIT @1000)               7,000                 7,000                   14,000
ID CARD ( PER YEAR)               1,000                      -                       1,000
STUDENT ORGANISATION(PER YEAR)               1,000                      -                       1,000
LIBRARY (PER YEAR)               4,000                      -                       4,000
TOTAL           228,750             207,250                 436,000
       
Bsc Geospacial and Space Tech-Year 3 - 14units      
   Semester 1   Semester 2   Yearly TOTAL 
TUITION           198,000             198,000                 396,000
MEDICAL FEE (PER YEAR)               6,500                      -                       6,500
ICT SERVICES - (PER YEAR)               7,000                      -                       7,000
ACTIVITY-( PER YEAR)               2,000                      -                       2,000
REGISTRATION (PER SEMESTER@2250)               2,250                 2,250                     4,500
EXAMINATION (PER UNIT @1000)               7,000                 7,000                   14,000
ID CARD ( PER YEAR)               1,000                      -                       1,000
STUDENT ORGANISATION(PER YEAR)               1,000                      -                       1,000
LIBRARY (PER YEAR)               4,000                      -                       4,000
TOTAL           228,750             207,250                 436,000
       
Bsc Geospacial and Space Tech-Year 4 -14units      
   Semester 1   Semester 2   Yearly TOTAL 
TUITION           198,000             198,000                 396,000
MEDICAL FEE (PER YEAR)               6,500                      -                       6,500
ICT SERVICES - (PER YEAR)               7,000                      -                       7,000
ACTIVITY-( PER YEAR)               2,000                      -                       2,000
REGISTRATION (PER SEMESTER@2250)               2,250                 2,250                     4,500
EXAMINATION (PER UNIT @1000)               7,000                 7,000                   14,000
ID CARD ( PER YEAR)               1,000                      -                       1,000
STUDENT ORGANISATION(PER YEAR)               1,000                      -                       1,000
LIBRARY (PER YEAR)               4,000                      -                       4,000
TOTAL           228,750             207,250                 436,000
       
Bsc Geospacial and Space Tech-Year 5 -11units      
   Semester 1   Semester 2   Yearly TOTAL 
TUITION           198,000             198,000                 396,000
MEDICAL FEE (PER YEAR)               6,500                      -                       6,500
ICT SERVICES - (PER YEAR)               7,000                      -                       7,000
ACTIVITY-( PER YEAR)               2,000                      -                       2,000
REGISTRATION (PER SEMESTER@2250)               2,250                 2,250                     4,500
EXAMINATION (PER UNIT @1000)               5,500                 5,500                   11,000
ID CARD ( PER YEAR)               1,000                       1,000
STUDENT ORGANISATION(PER YEAR)               1,000                      -                       1,000
LIBRARY (PER YEAR)               4,000                      -                       4,000
TOTALs           227,250             205,750                 433,000
Grand TOTAL                  2,182,000
Exam Regulations
  • The common regulations for the degree of Bachelor of Science in the Faculty of Engineering shall apply. These cover admission requirements, course structure and duration, examinations and degree award.

 

  • All course units up to the fourth year of study are compulsory. In the fifth year of study, in addition to the compulsory units, all students will also take up three units from the elective subject areas of Geodesy and Geodynamics , Positioning and Navigation, Topometry and Measurement Systems, Geoinformatics and Visualisation , and Land and Infrastructure Management . Two of the electives should come from the main elective subject area, with one selected from any of the other elective subject areas. All choices of electives will be subject to approval by the Department.

 

  • All candidates for the degree of B.Sc. (Geospatial Engineering) shall, in addition to the prescribed course-work, satisfactorily complete the following:

 

    1. Practical assignments (preferably on campus) of not less than 8 weeks, in each case, at the end of the second and third years of study designed and supervised by the Department.

 

    1. A hydrographic mapping exercise for not less than seven (7) days at the end of the second session of fourth year of study.

 

    1. Attendance at a university geospatial engineering camp for not less than fourteen (14) days after the second session of the fourth year of study.

 

    1. An industrial attachment of not less than 8 weeks after the geospatial engineering camp and the hydrographic mapping exercise at the end of the second session of the fourth year of study.

 

NB: At the end of the practical assignments, industrial visits, geospatial engineering camp and industrial attachment, as the case may be, each candidate will be required to submit an individual report on the respective exercise(s) which will be examined and assessed as either "satisfactory" or "not satisfactory". Candidates must satisfactorily complete the above tasks before graduating with the degree of Bachelor of Science in Geospatial Engineering.

Department
Geospatial